Using rubrics is the best way I have found to give more specific feedback. By identifying what it means to show understanding, I can then evaluate a students performance based on that criteria.
Here is the general rubric that I use for each learning target in a unit:
I break each unit into 10-12 learning targets and assess the student using the rubric above. You might notice that I don't go below 5. My reasoning is that a 5/10 is a solid "F" and communicates the message of "minimal understanding" just fine. I never give zeros anymore, they just are necessary.
I also use rubrics for projects and other assignments. For example, I have my students blog a few times a week. Here is my rubric I use for blogging:
Finally, I'll share a rubric that I used with a digital project: